Scholar, Public Intellectual, Activist, (1939— )
Carlos Muñoz, Jr. was born in the "segundo barrio" in El Paso, Texas, and raised in the barrios of East Los Angeles, California. He is the son of poor Mexican immigrants. He overcame poverty to earn a Ph.D. and become a prominent scholar and one of the founders of Chicana/o and Ethnic Studies in higher education. He is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Ethnic Studies, at the University of California, Berkeley. His best-known work, Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement (1989, revised 2007) has become the classic study of the Movement.
Muñoz played a prominent leadership role as one of the founders of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement. In 1968, he was one of 13 civil rights activists who were indicted for "conspiracy" for their role in the organizing of non-violent student protest against racial/ethnic educational inequality in the barrio schools of East Los Angeles. They each faced 66 years in prison. It took two years for the high courts of California to decide they were innocent by virtue of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; freedom of speech.
Muñoz has been speaking truth to power since he was a student activist in the 1960s and has been a central figure in the struggles for civil and human rights, social and economic justice, and peace. He has served as a leading organizer of various multiracial coalitions, including the Faculty for Human Rights in Central America, Faculty Against Apartheid in South Africa, and The Rainbow Coalition. He co-founded the Institute for Multiracial Justice in San Francisco and Latinos Unidos, a grassroots community organization in Berkeley, California. He also co-founded the Families for Multicultural Education in Albany, California.
Muñoz has strong family values and says his family has always been his "most cherished blessing". As the father of five children and grandfather of seven grandchildren, he has also been an outspoken critic of what he calls the "government's terrorist war" at home against Latino immigrant families.
"The war is being waged by the Department of Homeland Security that was created after 9/11 by President Bush. Its division of Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE) regularly conducts nationwide raids in workplaces and homes of immigrant workers to arrest those they suspect are undocumented immigrants. Those with legal status are also often harassed, arrested, and sometimes deported without trail. The raids have resulted in the tragic breakup of many families, leaving their U.S. born children homeless when parents are deported without the knowledge of their children."
As a Vietnam War Era Veteran, and a member of the Veterans for Peace, Muñoz has been an outspoken critic of all wars and U.S. intervention throughout the world.
"Our government should be a Democracy that declares war on poverty at home and abroad and not on sovereign nations that do not threaten our nation's freedom".
Muñoz advocates a new politics for the 21st century that is "inclusive of gender, race, ethnicity, class, sexuality, and disability…framed with a vision of an authentic multiracial and multiethnic democracy that will promote social justice, human rights, and peace at home and abroad". He believes it will take an arduous struggle to realize his vision, but he says,
"The most important lesson I have learned in all the years that I have been marching for social justice, freedom, and peace, is that life is struggle, and struggle is life. What's most important, however, is to always know that victory is in the struggle."